Senin, 11 Januari 2010

Nafiri

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The trumpet is a traditional musical instrument from Riau province on Sumatra island that looks like a trumpet. Communities in Riau alone wilt not only to develop instruments like the trumpet, but also musical instruments such as: cymbal, tetawak, improbable, kompang, lute, marwas, drum, tambourine, flute, fiddle, drum, gong, flute, harp, violin and accordion. Musical instruments in the rhythm and melody to produce a different individual with other musical instruments. We can see the game this instrument along with performances makyong which is a traditional art form that is still played and passed in Riau province. Besides being a musical instrument, the trumpet is also used as a means of public communication wither. Primarily to inform about the disaster, and news of the death.

History

The origins of the instrument is not so clear. If you look at the history of travel of Riau province, have long been occupied by the Malays during the Srivijaya kingdom. Malays are occupying various places in the Malacca Strait. Intermingling between the races wither to Padang, Javanese, Minangkabau, Bugis, Banjar and Batak cause a variety of cultures including musical instruments. However, there is an opinion that this instrument originated from India because of similar instruments to play the snake. There was also the opinion that this tool comes from the Middle East region because of the similarity of the name naifr.

By the time of empires, the trumpet is one important tool for use in the coronation of king but as a musical instrument in the palace. At first the Kingdom of Malaya Nobat legacy equipment such as trumpet, drums, betel Esar, and the emblem is a symbol of the country or so-called royal regelia serve as spiritual strength and honor of the kingdom along with customs. Without these tools the coronation of a king can not be validated. There is a belief in ancient times when the spiritual power is corrupt it will be destroyed and broken down the worth and dignity of the nation. For the Kingdom of the Overseas Malays Kingdom, an empire may be conquered, captured, and controlled by other parties. King or Emperor could have been displaced and fled to another country or region, seeking refuge. However, if the kingdom could not be reached Regelia and not captured, while the magic and sacred Regelia was still held by the king, the country's sovereignty is still erect. Emperor still has sovereignty, and he can establish the kingdom everywhere, and made the king everywhere. Because the tools were considered to have supernatural power, not yet conquered. Therefore, anyone who holds, and given the task of keeping it Regelia, is a strong and powerful. A person who has powers far above the other powers, including the Emperor himself. Usually the person is an advisor to the king. In Kedah trumpet along with musical instruments other nobat stored in a place called Hall Nobat. Nobat Hall itself is a typical building with Islamic architecture. This can be seen with the dome above. This building has often been renovated, especially in the era of Sultan kedah of the 25th of Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin Mukarram Shah that has occupied the throne, beginning in 1854 until 1879. Nobat derived from Persian word 'Naubat "which means nine instruments. Nobat a royal orchestra music that is used primarily for the coronation of kings, noblemen and welcome a special guest. The players called the People Nobat. Nobat also played together with holy festivals such as death. There is a belief that originated nobat Indian tradition transmitted by the merchants who was stopped in the straits of Malacca.

In the days of old kingdom, the trumpet is used as a tool to declare war against another kingdom. Also, the trumpet is used to preach about the death of the king, he lifted the king. This tool is also used to gather the people, so they soon came to the palace square to listen to news or announcements of their people. Therefore, the tool is used as a royal heritage items.

In Malaysia, we also find an instrument called a trumpet, although with a slightly different form. In the country this instrument we can find to accompany folk songs and traditional ceremonies. We can see this tool in the orchestra nobat in Malaysia. This instrument is also used for the coronation knighted. One person who never received an honorary degree at Adat Riau is Sultan Hamengkubuwono X. When his coronation took place votes Nafiri with other traditional musical instruments to accompany the show in front of Assembly Perapatan Adat Melayu. The tools are used as markers diangaktanya someone as noble. Currently trumpet function becomes more reduced because only used on royal occasions or celebrations conducted by the wilt.

According to the beliefs of Riau Malays, when playing this instrument players possessed by the gods, haunter, and fairies. So as if they convey a message of impending danger or other important events. Therefore, before blowing this instrument needs to be smoked over dipusung the censer. The trumpet is blown with air flow is not interrupted for two or three hours. Nafiri players who should have a long breath, healthy body, and has a special technique that does not break tiupannya. The trumpet is blown only with his right hand while his left hand holding the bottom.
[edit] The function and usefulness

1. Traditional dance, henna dance, dance dance Jinugroho and Olang.
2. As the main instrument in the music that is robat music played in society.
3. As a melody that is used to determine the silat movements.
4. For the coronation of kings when Riau still shaped kingdoms and nobles.
5. Signs of the war, disasters, and death.
6. The instrument used as a spiritual marker to call god, spirit, or spirits of ancestors.

[edit] How to make Nafiri

Made of wood measuring 25 to 45 centimeters. Between the rod and place given the limits tiupnya made from coconut shell. Trumpet used a tongue split in half is made of young coconut leaves or bamboo that is dry. Tersebutlah tongue called a vibrator that will make a sound or sounds. There are three finger holes, the amount of fruit about the size of kernels of corn to set high and low tones. At the base provided with links shaped like a truncated ovoid, and hollow to create a volume larger issued. Music issued sounded like thrashing than a clear melody to be heard.

A piece of wood that has been dikerat according to the desired size of dipangkalnya so ditoreh shaped like an egg which has cut the edges. Then given bebatang, the process is called immunity or would trumpet. Then the patches are refined by using a knife and swiped to look smoothed with traps leaves or petals of a flower found only Sukon sumatera area. Then drilled using a small drill and a chisel, it will make the trumpet is hollow with a thick skin about half a centimeter. On trumpet trunk holes finger using a heated iron. How to play and make Nafiri derived continuously from generation to generation by the Melayu Riau.



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