Senin, 11 Januari 2010


Indonesian From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Lute is a stringed musical instrument like a mandolin from the Middle East. At least 3-stringed lute attached to at most 12 strings. Lute played with a drum accompaniment. An orchestra using the main instrument of the orchestra called lute lute or lute called it. In TVRI and RRI, the orchestra has hosted lute desert rhythms.

Lute to accompany dance orchestra entirely Zapin brought him to dance socially. Rhythmic songs that brought the Middle East. While the lyrics are religious themes. Instrument consists of violin, drums, tabla and flute. Today, the orchestra lute belongs Betawi people and many in the party invited circumcision and marriage. Arabic lyrics, it could be prayer or peace. Pilot orchestra is Syech Albar lute, his father Ahmad Albar, and the famous orchestra El-Surayya lute from Medan leader Ahmad Baqi.


Indonesian From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The trumpet is a traditional musical instrument from Riau province on Sumatra island that looks like a trumpet. Communities in Riau alone wilt not only to develop instruments like the trumpet, but also musical instruments such as: cymbal, tetawak, improbable, kompang, lute, marwas, drum, tambourine, flute, fiddle, drum, gong, flute, harp, violin and accordion. Musical instruments in the rhythm and melody to produce a different individual with other musical instruments. We can see the game this instrument along with performances makyong which is a traditional art form that is still played and passed in Riau province. Besides being a musical instrument, the trumpet is also used as a means of public communication wither. Primarily to inform about the disaster, and news of the death.


The origins of the instrument is not so clear. If you look at the history of travel of Riau province, have long been occupied by the Malays during the Srivijaya kingdom. Malays are occupying various places in the Malacca Strait. Intermingling between the races wither to Padang, Javanese, Minangkabau, Bugis, Banjar and Batak cause a variety of cultures including musical instruments. However, there is an opinion that this instrument originated from India because of similar instruments to play the snake. There was also the opinion that this tool comes from the Middle East region because of the similarity of the name naifr.

By the time of empires, the trumpet is one important tool for use in the coronation of king but as a musical instrument in the palace. At first the Kingdom of Malaya Nobat legacy equipment such as trumpet, drums, betel Esar, and the emblem is a symbol of the country or so-called royal regelia serve as spiritual strength and honor of the kingdom along with customs. Without these tools the coronation of a king can not be validated. There is a belief in ancient times when the spiritual power is corrupt it will be destroyed and broken down the worth and dignity of the nation. For the Kingdom of the Overseas Malays Kingdom, an empire may be conquered, captured, and controlled by other parties. King or Emperor could have been displaced and fled to another country or region, seeking refuge. However, if the kingdom could not be reached Regelia and not captured, while the magic and sacred Regelia was still held by the king, the country's sovereignty is still erect. Emperor still has sovereignty, and he can establish the kingdom everywhere, and made the king everywhere. Because the tools were considered to have supernatural power, not yet conquered. Therefore, anyone who holds, and given the task of keeping it Regelia, is a strong and powerful. A person who has powers far above the other powers, including the Emperor himself. Usually the person is an advisor to the king. In Kedah trumpet along with musical instruments other nobat stored in a place called Hall Nobat. Nobat Hall itself is a typical building with Islamic architecture. This can be seen with the dome above. This building has often been renovated, especially in the era of Sultan kedah of the 25th of Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin Mukarram Shah that has occupied the throne, beginning in 1854 until 1879. Nobat derived from Persian word 'Naubat "which means nine instruments. Nobat a royal orchestra music that is used primarily for the coronation of kings, noblemen and welcome a special guest. The players called the People Nobat. Nobat also played together with holy festivals such as death. There is a belief that originated nobat Indian tradition transmitted by the merchants who was stopped in the straits of Malacca.

In the days of old kingdom, the trumpet is used as a tool to declare war against another kingdom. Also, the trumpet is used to preach about the death of the king, he lifted the king. This tool is also used to gather the people, so they soon came to the palace square to listen to news or announcements of their people. Therefore, the tool is used as a royal heritage items.

In Malaysia, we also find an instrument called a trumpet, although with a slightly different form. In the country this instrument we can find to accompany folk songs and traditional ceremonies. We can see this tool in the orchestra nobat in Malaysia. This instrument is also used for the coronation knighted. One person who never received an honorary degree at Adat Riau is Sultan Hamengkubuwono X. When his coronation took place votes Nafiri with other traditional musical instruments to accompany the show in front of Assembly Perapatan Adat Melayu. The tools are used as markers diangaktanya someone as noble. Currently trumpet function becomes more reduced because only used on royal occasions or celebrations conducted by the wilt.

According to the beliefs of Riau Malays, when playing this instrument players possessed by the gods, haunter, and fairies. So as if they convey a message of impending danger or other important events. Therefore, before blowing this instrument needs to be smoked over dipusung the censer. The trumpet is blown with air flow is not interrupted for two or three hours. Nafiri players who should have a long breath, healthy body, and has a special technique that does not break tiupannya. The trumpet is blown only with his right hand while his left hand holding the bottom.
[edit] The function and usefulness

1. Traditional dance, henna dance, dance dance Jinugroho and Olang.
2. As the main instrument in the music that is robat music played in society.
3. As a melody that is used to determine the silat movements.
4. For the coronation of kings when Riau still shaped kingdoms and nobles.
5. Signs of the war, disasters, and death.
6. The instrument used as a spiritual marker to call god, spirit, or spirits of ancestors.

[edit] How to make Nafiri

Made of wood measuring 25 to 45 centimeters. Between the rod and place given the limits tiupnya made from coconut shell. Trumpet used a tongue split in half is made of young coconut leaves or bamboo that is dry. Tersebutlah tongue called a vibrator that will make a sound or sounds. There are three finger holes, the amount of fruit about the size of kernels of corn to set high and low tones. At the base provided with links shaped like a truncated ovoid, and hollow to create a volume larger issued. Music issued sounded like thrashing than a clear melody to be heard.

A piece of wood that has been dikerat according to the desired size of dipangkalnya so ditoreh shaped like an egg which has cut the edges. Then given bebatang, the process is called immunity or would trumpet. Then the patches are refined by using a knife and swiped to look smoothed with traps leaves or petals of a flower found only Sukon sumatera area. Then drilled using a small drill and a chisel, it will make the trumpet is hollow with a thick skin about half a centimeter. On trumpet trunk holes finger using a heated iron. How to play and make Nafiri derived continuously from generation to generation by the Melayu Riau.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
A medieval harp (left) and modern pedal harp
String instrument
Hornbostel-Sachs classification 322-5
(Composite chordophone sounded by the bare fingers)
Developed Antiquity
Playing range
Range of harp.JPG
(modern pedal harp)[1]
Related instruments

A harp is a stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. It is classified as a chordophone by the Harvard Dictionary of Music and only types of harps are in that class of instruments with plucked strings. All harps have a neck, resonator, and strings. Some, known as frame harps, also have a forepillar; those lacking the forepillar are referred to as open harps. Depending on its size (which varies considerably), a harp may be played while held in the lap or while it stands on the floor. Harp strings are made of nylon, gut, wire, or silk on certain instruments. A person who plays the harp is called a harpist or harper. Folk musicians often use the term "harper", whereas classical musicians use "harpist".

Various types of harps are found in Africa, Europe, North, and South America, and in Asia. In antiquity, harps and the closely related lyres were very prominent in nearly all cultures. The oldest harps found thus far have been uncovered in ruins from ancient Sumer. The harp also predominant in the hands of medieval bards, troubadors and minnesingers, as well as throughout the Spanish Empire. Harps continued to grow in popularity through improvements in their design and construction through the beginning of the twentieth century.

The aeolian harp (wind harp), the autoharp, and all forms of the lyre and Kithara are not harps because their strings are not perpendicular to the soundboard; they are part of the zither family of instruments along with the piano and harpsichord. In blues music, the harmonica is called a "Blues harp" or "harp", but it is a free reed wind instrument, not a stringed instrument, and is therefore not an actual harp.


An ancient Egyptian harp on display in the British Museum.

Harps were most likely independently invented in many parts of the world in remote prehistory.[clarification needed] It is self-evident that the harp's origins may lie in the sound of a plucked hunter's bow string or the strings of a loom.

A type of harp called a 'bow harp' is nothing more than a bow like a hunter's, with a resonating vessel such as a gourd fixed somewhere along its length. To allow a greater number of strings, harps were later made from two pieces of wood attached at the ends: this type is known as the 'angle harp'.

The oldest depictions of harps without a forepillar are from 4000 BC in Egypt[citation needed](see Music of Egypt) and 3000 BCE in Persia (see Music of Iran).[citation needed] While most English translations of the Bible feature the word 'harp', especially in connection with King David, the Hebrew word is nevel, a type of lyre with 10 strings and not a harp at all. The Hebrew word for one kind of harp is kinnor. Other ancient names for harps include magadis and sambuka. The kanun is a descendant of the ancient Egyptian harp and was introduced to Europe by the Moors during the Middle Ages.

Structure and mechanism

Harps are roughly triangular and are usually made primarily of wood. The lower ends of the strings are fastened to the inside of the sounding-board, which is the outer surface of the resonating cavity. The body is hollow and resonates, projecting sound both toward the player through openings, and outward through the highly flexible sounding board. The crossbar, or neck, contains the mechanism or levers which determine the pitch alteration (sharps and flats) for each string. The upper ends of the strings are attached to pins in holes drilled through the neck. The longest side, the column, encloses the rods controlling the mechanism of a pedal harp. At the base are seven pedals, which activate the rods when they are downwardly pressed. The modern sophisticated instrument spanning 6½ octaves in virtually all keys was perfected by the 19th-century French maker Sébastien Érard.

Lever harps do not have pedals or rods. Instead they use a shortening lever on the neck for each individual string which must be activated manually in order to shorten the string and raise the tone a half step. Thus, a string tuned to natural may be played in sharp, but not flat. A string tuned to flat may be played in natural, but not sharp. Lever harps are considerably lighter in weight than pedal harps and are smaller in size and number of strings. Lever harps are popular for playing folk music and are most commonly called folk harps.

The harp lute or dital harp adapts the lever tuning system to a fretted instrument in the lute or guitar family.


Indonesian From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Drum is a percussion instrument like a drum. Drum is a traditional musical instrument that has been used since thousands of years ago, which has a function as a traditional means of communication, both in the activities of religious and political rituals. In Indonesia, a regular drum was sounded for the notification of the times of prayer or worship. Drum made from a large piece of wood or palm trees along approximately one meter or more. The center of the rod-shaped hole so the big tube. End of the rod is larger covered with animal skins that functions as a membrane or coating drum. When struck, drum heavy noise, pitched a typical, low, but can be heard up to a considerable distance.


Drum actually originated from India and China. Based on the legend of Cheng Ho from China, as when Admiral Cheng Hoo come to Semarang, they were welcomed by the king of Java at that time. Then, when Cheng Ho was about to leave, and to give a gift, the king of Semarang said that he only wanted to listen to the voice of the mosque drum. Since then, the drum and then became part of the mosque, as in China, Korea and Japan, which positions the drum in the temples as a religious ritual communication tool. In Indonesia, a regular drum is sounded for prayer time notification mengani or prayers. As powerful drum Orba been removed from surau and mosques because they contain elements of non-Muslims. Drum was replaced by a loudspeaker. This was done by the Islamic modernists, but NU resistance so far can be seen there are many who defend the mosque drum.

Function drum

* Social Functions: drum serves as a communication tool, or sign community activities, ranging from worship, an indication of danger, until the landmark gathering of a komuntas.
* The function of aesthetics: drum work in the creative world development, concepts, and culture of musical material.

How to creating a simple drum

At first, skinned goat or cow. Animal skins used to make a drum of raw materials such as goat skin, cow, buffalo, and buffalo. White cowhide has a better quality compared with brown cowhide. Because white cow skin is thicker than the brown cowhide, so that the resulting sound will be different as well, lower durability. Then, the skin is soaked in water detergent approximately 5-10 minutes. Do not be too long to not be damaged. Then, the skin is dried in a way dipanteng (held) in order not to shrink. When dry, measure the diameter of wood that have been painted and will be made drum. Seteleh finished measured, the skin is attached to a wooden stump of wood that had been prepared. The process of unification with the animal skin made of wood with nails and some ropes.

Games Bedug (Art Ngadulag)

Ngadulag art comes from the West Java area. Basically, the drum has the same function as described previously. However, the drum beats in each region has differences with other regions, making it unique. Thus was born the term "Ngadulag" which refers to a drum beating skills. Now the drum beat of skills has become an independent art form of art Ngadulag (drum playing). In the area Bojonglopang, Sukabumi, ngadulag art has become a competition to get the best drum drummers. The competition is divided into 2 categories, namely the beauty and durability. The beauty of rhythm and rhythm priority drum beats, while resistance plays priority durability or how long the power beating the drum. The competition was participated by men and women. From this game the art of beating the drum through the development. In the past, the art equipment drum beat of the drum consisted simply, kohkol, and trumpets. But now even developed its equipment. Besides those mentioned above, the drum beat is now also equipped with musical instruments like guitars, keyboards, and cymbal.

The world's largest Bedug

The world's largest drum in the Masjid Darul Muttaqien, Purworejo. This drum is a great work of Muslims, whose creation was ordered by the Duke Tjokronagoro I, Regent's first Purworejo. made in 1762 or 1834 AD Java And named Kyai Begelan. Size or specifications of this drum were: length 292 cm, circumference 601 cm in front of, around the rear of 564 cm, diameter of the front of 194 cm, diameter of the rear of 180 cm. Part of this beating of the drum is made from buffalo skin. Giant drum is designed as a "means of communication" to invite the congregation to hear as far as possible through drum beats as a sign of time praying before adzan voiced


Indonesian From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Gendrum is a hybrid instrument between the drum and the drum designed by Siswo Harsono in 1992. Musical instruments are usually applied in the arts Gambang Semarang and can also be applied in other arts such as Jaipongan, campursari, or dangdut. Gendrum consists of a jaipong drums, a drum stick, two ketipung (panepak), two ketibung (ketipung large), a pair of bongo, cowbells, bass drum, cymbals and a set consisting of a ride, crash, splash, and china.

Gendrum a set of percussion played by a player gendrum (gendrumer), and not by a group of percussion players. Percussion combination contained in the device as a united gendrum already tuned harmony as necessary. Techniques applied by the game Harsono Siswo called "slap campursari". Campursari slap-style game Siswo Harsono diverse game that combines slap jaipong drums, bongo, drums, and cymbals. Campursari Masjid was applied by Siswo Harsono in the development of Gambang Semarang art done by the Faculty of Letters, Diponegoro University, Semarang.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Mevlâna mausoleum, Konya, Turkey

The rebab (Arabic الرباب or رباب - "a bowed (instrument)") , also rebap, rabab, rebeb, rababah, or al-rababa) is a type of string instrument so named no later than the 8th century and spread via Islamic trading routes over much of North Africa, the Middle East, parts of Europe, and the Far East. The bowed variety often has a spike at the bottom to rest on the ground, and is thus called a spike fiddle in certain areas, but there exist plucked versions like the kabuli rebab (sometimes referred to as the robab or rubab)

The rebab usually consists of a small, usually rounded body, the front of which is covered in a membrane such as parchment or sheepskin and has a long neck attached. There is a long thin neck with a pegbox at the end and there are one, two or three strings. There is no fingerboard. The instrument is held upright, either resting on the lap or on the floor. The bow is usually more curved than that of the violin.

The rebab, though valued for its voice-like tone, has a very limited range (little over an octave), and was gradually replaced throughout much of the Arab world by the violin and kemenche. It is related to the Iraqi instrument the Joza, which has four strings.

The introduction of the rebab into Western Europe has possibly coincided with the conquest of Spain by the Moors, in the Iberian Peninsula. There is however evidence of the existence of bowed instruments in the 9th century also in Eastern Europe: the Persian geographer of the 9th century Ibn Khurradadhbih cited the bowed Byzantine lira (or lūrā) as typical bowed instrument of the Byzantines and equivalent to the Arab rabāb .


The rebab is used in a wide variety of musical ensembles and genres, corresponding with its wide distribution, and is built and played somewhat differently in different areas. In Southeast Asia, the rebab is a large instrument with a range similar to the viola da gamba, whereas versions of the instrument further west tend to be smaller and higher-pitched. The body varies from being ornately carved, as in Java, to simpler models such as the 2-string Egyptian "fiddle of the Nile" may have a body made of half a coconut shell. The more sophisticated versions have a wooden soundbox and the front may be half-covered with beaten copper, and half with goatskin.

Arabia, Persia and the Ottomans

The rebab was heavily used, and continues to be used, in Persian music. It is also played in other countries such as India, most likely tracing its origin to Greater Iran because of its use in the Sassanid court. It was adopted as a key instrument in Arab classical music and in Morocco a tradition of Arabo-Andalusian music has been kept alive by descendants of Muslims who left Spain as refugees following the Reconquista. The rebab became a favourite instrument in the tea houses of the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire.

Indonesia and Malaysia

Indonesian rebab player

In the Indonesian gamelan the rebab is an essential elaborating instrument, ornamenting the basic melody. It does not have to conform exactly to the scale of the other gamelan instruments and can be played in relatively free time, finishing its phrases after the beat of the gong ageng (the big gong that "rules" the ensemble). The rebab also frequently plays the buka when it is part of the ensemble.

In the eastern Malaysian states of Kelantan and Terengganu, the Rebab is used in a healing ritual called "Main Peteri". The musician healer is sometimes taken to hospitals in cases where doctors are unable to heal ailing patients.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

The slenthem (also slentem or gender panembung) is a Javanese metallophone which makes up part of a gamelan orchestra.

The slenthem is part of the gendér family. It consists of a set of bronze keys comprising a single octave: there are six keys when playing the slendro scale and seven when playing the pelog. These keys are suspended by leather cords over individual bamboo tube resonators in a wooden frame, which are cut so that the placement of the bamboo's node causes the functional length of the resonator to be shorter for higher notes. The instrument is played by striking the keys with a mallet, called a tabuh, which has a short handle and a thin wooden disk edged in cloth or rubber. One hand is left free to dampen notes. It is a low-pitched instrument with a softer sound than the saron demung.

Like the saron barung and demung, it generally plays the most basic form of the melody (balungan) in a composition. However it also sometimes uses techniques similar to the saron to elaborate. It is especially favored in quieter gamelan ensembles (such as Gamelan Gadhon); but it is a part of standard Gamelan Gedhé as the only soft-style instrument also played in loud-style pieces.

It is typically placed among the instruments at the front of the performing area.